Effects of CES Frequencies
Some claim the effectiveness of the Cranio-Electro Stimulation (CES) comes from the frequency. To date, there has never been a comparative study of the various frequencies. One CES manufacturer uses long-pulse trains at 15 kHz, whereas all other CES devices use 100 Hz and under. In the 1990s, Meg Patterson experimented on frequencies up to 500 Hz for the treatment of drug addictions, but the advantage of specific frequencies for specific drugs was never established. A study by Kennerly (2006) showed that 0.5 Hz versus 100 Hz frequency differentially affected brainwave activity, with 0.5 Hz stimulation decreasing a wider range of delta brainwaves and 100 Hz decreasing a wider range of beta frequencies. This caused him to conclude that 0.5 Hz stimulated more endorphins, while 100 Hz stimulated more serotonin (Figure 1). However this was never confirmed with chemical analysis.
Figure 1. CES Effects on Brain (qEEG) – Kennerly, 2006
A study by Shealy on the Liss Stimulator found fairly dramatic effects of various neurotransmitters in cerebral spinal fluid (Figure 2).
Figure 2. CES – Neurotransmitter Production – Shealy, 1989.
CES has been found to dramatically activate the default mode network (DMN). The DMN is often activating poorly with conditions of Alzheimer's, autism, PTSD, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, chronic pain, and psychopathy (Figure 3).
Figure 3. CES – Effects on Brain (fMRI).
Also, 100 Hz affects different areas of the DMN and brain compared to 0.5 Hz.
Figure 4. CES – Effects on Brain (fMRI) Default Mode Network – Kennerly, 2006.
One of the major issues with using CES is the stinging sensation that occurs at the electrode site. This can interfere with patient compliance. Mind Alive CES devices have overcome this issue by rounding the front-end of the CES wave to remove most of the stinging sensation.
In conclusion, some differences have been found between using 0.5 and 100 Hz frequencies of CES, but overall, regarding the reduction of depression, anxiety, pain, and insomnia, it can be concluded that CES exerts a general impact on the brain in roughly the same way at any frequency ranging from 0.5 to 15 kHz.